Duct Propagation

Definition: A radio wave propagation technique that allows the transmission of UHF and VHF electromagnetic waves through the region near the tropospheric layer of atmosphere is known as duct propagation. Basically in duct propagation, despite being reflected from the ionosphere or gliding over the surface of the earth, the waves propagate from an end to …

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Space Wave Propagation

Definition: Space wave propagation is the type of radio wave propagation in which the radio waves are propagated either directly from transmitting antenna to receiving antenna or by getting reflected from the ground. Basically in space wave propagation, direct transmission of the signal is achieved by line of sight communication. The transmission of a signal …

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Sky Wave Propagation

Definition: A type of radio wave communication in which the electromagnetic wave propagates due to the reflection mechanism of the ionospheric layer of the atmosphere is known as sky wave propagation. Due to propagation through the ionosphere, it is also known as ionospheric wave propagation. The permissible frequency range in the case of sky wave …

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Ground Wave Propagation

Definition: A type of radio wave propagation that allows propagation of radio waves in the region between earth’s surface and ionosphere is known as Ground Wave Propagation. More simply we can say, in this type of propagation, the electromagnetic waves propagate near the surface of the earth. Ground wave propagation is generally a low-frequency signal …

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Types of Antennas

In the previous article, we have discussed that antenna serves as an integral element of a wireless communication system. Antennas are the devices that are used to convert an electrical signal into the electromagnetic signal and electromagnetic signal back to electrical form. It acts as a key component of wireless communication thereby permitting radio wave …

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Antenna – Need and Parameters

Definition: Antennas are considered to be the fundamental part of a wireless communication system. An Antenna is a device that changes the RF signal into an equivalent electromagnetic wave. So that it can be transmitted into free space. As we know that antennas are required at the time of both transmission and reception. Thus radio …

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Backward Wave Oscillator

BWO is an abbreviation used for Backward Wave Oscillator. It is a special type of vacuum tube used to produce microwave signals in the range of Terahertz (THz). Backward wave oscillator belongs to the group of Travelling Wave Tubes that generates oscillations at microwave frequencies. Backward wave oscillators are also known as Carcinotrons. As both …

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IMPATT Diode

IMPATT is an abbreviation used for IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time. IMPATT diode is a very high power semiconductor device that is utilized for microwave applications. It is basically used as oscillator and amplifier at microwave frequencies. The operating range of the IMPATT diode lies in the range of 3 to 100 GHz. Basically it possesses …

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Directional Coupler

Definition: Directional Coupler is a passive network that is used to measure the microwave power delivered to the load. It is a waveguide with 4-ports which aims at sampling of microwave power. In a nutshell, directional couplers allow the determination of delivered power to the load from the power actually being transmitted by the source. …

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Reflex Klystron

Definition: A Reflex Klystron is a specialized low power vacuum tube used to produce oscillations at microwave frequency. Its principle of operation is velocity and current modulation. Klystrons are basically specialized tubes used as amplifiers and oscillators at microwave frequency range. Content: Reflex Klystron Need Operating Principle Construction Working Specifications Applications Need of Reflex Klystron …

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