Input Impedance of Antenna

Definition: The input impedance of antenna is basically the impedance offered by the antenna at its terminals. It is defined as the ratio of voltage to the current across the two input terminals of the antenna. Generally, the antenna impedance is given as: We have already discussed in our previous article that antennas are used …

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Radio Frequency Spectrum

Definition: A part of the electromagnetic spectrum that holds the least frequency range and highest wavelength is known as the radio frequency spectrum. It is sometimes referred as radio spectrum or radio wave spectrum. Generally, the radio spectrum has a frequency range between 30 kHz to 300 GHz. We know that an electromagnetic spectrum contains …

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Fading in Wireless Communication

Definition: Fading in wireless communication is defined as the fluctuation in the strength of the signal received at the receiver. These are basically unwanted variations introduced at the time when the signal propagates from an end to another by taking multiple paths. Fading is said to be a common characteristic of sky wave signals that …

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Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances

Definition: Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances generally abbreviated as SID is a type of ionospheric abnormality which is a result of solar flares. Basically solar flares cause an abrupt increase in the ionization density in the D region of the ionosphere. Thus it is said that SID is an outcome of solar flares. SID basically causes absorption …

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Duct Propagation

Definition: A radio wave propagation technique that allows the transmission of UHF and VHF electromagnetic waves through the region near the tropospheric layer of atmosphere is known as duct propagation. Basically in duct propagation, despite being reflected from the ionosphere or gliding over the surface of the earth, the waves propagate from an end to …

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Space Wave Propagation

Definition: Space wave propagation is the type of radio wave propagation in which the radio waves are propagated either directly from transmitting antenna to receiving antenna or by getting reflected from the ground. Basically in space wave propagation, direct transmission of the signal is achieved by line of sight communication. The transmission of a signal …

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Sky Wave Propagation

Definition: A type of radio wave communication in which the electromagnetic wave propagates due to the reflection mechanism of the ionospheric layer of the atmosphere is known as sky wave propagation. Due to propagation through the ionosphere, it is also known as ionospheric wave propagation. The permissible frequency range in the case of sky wave …

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Ground Wave Propagation

Definition: A type of radio wave propagation that allows propagation of radio waves in the region between earth’s surface and ionosphere is known as Ground Wave Propagation. More simply we can say, in this type of propagation, the electromagnetic waves propagate near the surface of the earth. Ground wave propagation is generally a low-frequency signal …

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Types of Antennas

In the previous article, we have discussed that antenna serves as an integral element of a wireless communication system. Antennas are the devices that are used to convert an electrical signal into the electromagnetic signal and electromagnetic signal back to electrical form. It acts as a key component of wireless communication thereby permitting radio wave …

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Antenna – Need and Parameters

Definition: Antennas are considered to be the fundamental part of a wireless communication system. An Antenna is a device that changes the RF signal into an equivalent electromagnetic wave. So that it can be transmitted into free space. As we know that antennas are required at the time of both transmission and reception. Thus radio …

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