Microwave Engineering

Backward Wave Oscillator

BWO is an abbreviation used for Backward Wave Oscillator. It is a special type of vacuum tube used to produce microwave signals in the range of Terahertz (THz). Backward wave oscillator belongs to the group of Travelling Wave Tubes that generates oscillations at microwave frequencies. Backward wave oscillators are also known as Carcinotrons. As both …

Backward Wave Oscillator Read More »

IMPATT Diode

IMPATT is an abbreviation used for IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time. IMPATT diode is a very high power semiconductor device that is utilized for microwave applications. It is basically used as oscillator and amplifier at microwave frequencies. The operating range of the IMPATT diode lies in the range of 3 to 100 GHz. Basically it possesses …

IMPATT Diode Read More »

Directional Coupler

Definition: Directional Coupler is a passive network that is used to measure the microwave power delivered to the load. It is a waveguide with 4-ports which aims at sampling of microwave power. In a nutshell, directional couplers allow the determination of delivered power to the load from the power actually being transmitted by the source. …

Directional Coupler Read More »

Reflex Klystron

Definition: A Reflex Klystron is a specialized low power vacuum tube used to produce oscillations at microwave frequency. Its principle of operation is velocity and current modulation. Klystrons are basically specialized tubes used as amplifiers and oscillators at microwave frequency range. Content: Reflex Klystron Need Operating Principle Construction Working Specifications Applications Need of Reflex Klystron …

Reflex Klystron Read More »

Klystron – Two-cavity Klystron Amplifier

Definition: Klystrons are a special type of vacuum tubes that find applications as amplifiers and oscillators at microwave frequencies. Its principle of operation is velocity modulation. Thus the device used for amplifying microwave signals is known as Two-cavity Klystron. In the year 1937, American engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian developed klystrons. Basically the operating principle …

Klystron – Two-cavity Klystron Amplifier Read More »

Travelling Wave Tube (TWT)

A travelling wave tube is a high power amplifier used for the amplification of microwave signals up to a wide range. It is a special type of vacuum tube that offers an operating frequency ranging between 300 MHz to 50 GHz. Travelling wave tubes are non-resonant structures that offer continuous interaction of applied RF field …

Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) Read More »

Magnetron

Definition: A magnetron is a device that generates high power electromagnetic wave. It is basically considered as a self-excited microwave oscillator. And is also known as a crossed-field device. The reason behind calling it so is that the electric and magnetic field produced inside the tube are mutually perpendicular to each other thus the two …

Magnetron Read More »

Gunn Diode

Definition: A Gunn diode is a semiconductor device formed by only N-type material. It is also termed as a transferred electron device. As in n-type material, electrons acts as majority carriers and these are transferred from one valley to another. It is a two terminal device basically made up of semiconductor material like GaAs, InP …

Gunn Diode Read More »

Waveguides

Definition: Waveguides are a special category of transmission line that is used to guide (direct) the waves (radiation) along the length of the tube. These are typically hollow metallic tube which acts as the medium to transfer or transmit the power. In waveguides, the energy is propagated through a tube. It can be either rectangular …

Waveguides Read More »

Transmission Lines

Definition: Transmission lines are the conductors that serve as a path for transmitting (sending) electrical waves (energy) through them. These basically forms a connection between transmitter and receiver in order to permit signal transmission. Transmission lines in microwave engineering are known as distributed parameter networks. As their voltage and current shows variation over its entire …

Transmission Lines Read More »