Roshni Y

Klystron – Two-cavity Klystron Amplifier

Definition: Klystrons are a special type of vacuum tubes that find applications as amplifiers and oscillators at microwave frequencies. Its principle of operation is velocity modulation. Thus the device used for amplifying microwave signals is known as Two-cavity Klystron. In the year 1937, American engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian developed klystrons. Basically the operating principle …

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8284 Clock Generator

8284 clock generator is an IC developed by Intel to provide clock frequency, ready and reset signal to the 8086/8088 microprocessor. It is an 18 pin chip. 8284 produces the clock signal, synchronizes it with the ready and reset signal and provides it to the microprocessor. Functions of 8284 It provides a stable clock to …

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Assembler Directives

Definition: Assembler directives are the instructions used by the assembler at the time of assembling a source program. More specifically, we can say, assembler directives are the commands or instructions that control the operation of the assembler. Assembler directives are the instructions provided to the assembler, not the processor as the processor has nothing to …

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Assembly Language Programming

Assembly language programming is a low-level programming language in which the instructions are written in the form of mnemonics. More simply, we can say the language in the form of mnemonics is known as assembly language. This programming language allows the creation of human-readable program equivalent to machine code. Now a question arises: What are …

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Radar Clutter

Definition: Radar Clutter is defined as the unwanted back-scattered signals or echoes generated from physical objects in the natural environment like ground, sea, birds, etc. Due to the presence of clutter the detection of target by the radar system in the environment becomes difficult. Sometimes there exist multiple scatterers in the environment that produces unwanted …

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Monochrome Picture Tube

Definition: A monochrome picture tube is a specialized CRT that produces a black and white image on the screen of the tube by the action of an electron beam. The screen of the tube consists of a layer of phosphor that produces light when a high-velocity beam strikes it. A picture tube basically acts as …

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Video Switcher (Vision Mixer)

Definition: A video switcher is a crossbar switch that allows selection of one or more desired sources or inputs from multiple sources so as to generate a complete program. It is also known as a vision mixer. It is basically a switch matrix that selects either one or more input out of various inputs to …

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Plumbicon

Plumbicon camera tube is a photoconductive type of camera tube as photoconduction is the basis of its operation. This camera tube was invented in the year 1963 by Philips. One of the major reasons behind the invention of Plumbicon is the drawback of image lag associated with Vidicon tubes. To eliminate this drawback, the target …

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Image Orthicon

Image Orthicon is a photoemissive type of camera tube. Photoemission is the basis of its working. This camera tube was invented in the year 1945 by Radio Corporation of America. Photocathode acts as a primary element in the operation of image orthicon. This is so because photocathode allows the emission of electrons from its surface …

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Vidicon Camera Tube

Definition: A Vidicon is a type of camera tube whose basis of working is photoconductivity. Basically it changes optical energy into electrical energy by the variation in resistance of the material with respect to the illumination. These camera tubes were invented in the 50s. The tube length is around 12 to 20 cm with a …

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