Types of Antennas

In the previous article, we have discussed that antenna serves as an integral element of a wireless communication system. Antennas are the devices that are used to convert an electrical signal into the electromagnetic signal and electromagnetic signal back to electrical form. It acts as a key component of wireless communication thereby permitting radio wave …

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Antenna – Need and Parameters

Definition: Antennas are considered to be the fundamental part of a wireless communication system. An Antenna is a device that changes the RF signal into an equivalent electromagnetic wave. So that it can be transmitted into free space. As we know that antennas are required at the time of both transmission and reception. Thus radio …

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Backward Wave Oscillator

BWO is an abbreviation used for Backward Wave Oscillator. It is a special type of vacuum tube used to produce microwave signals in the range of Terahertz (THz). Backward wave oscillator belongs to the group of Travelling Wave Tubes that generates oscillations at microwave frequencies. Backward wave oscillators are also known as Carcinotrons. As both …

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IMPATT Diode

IMPATT is an abbreviation used for IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time. IMPATT diode is a very high power semiconductor device that is utilized for microwave applications. It is basically used as oscillator and amplifier at microwave frequencies. The operating range of the IMPATT diode lies in the range of 3 to 100 GHz. Basically it possesses …

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Directional Coupler

Definition: Directional Coupler is a passive network that is used to measure the microwave power delivered to the load. It is a waveguide with 4-ports which aims at sampling of microwave power. In a nutshell, directional couplers allow the determination of delivered power to the load from the power actually being transmitted by the source. …

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Reflex Klystron

Definition: A Reflex Klystron is a specialized low-power vacuum tube used to produce oscillations at microwave frequency. Its principle of operation is velocity and current modulation. Klystrons are basically specialized tubes used as amplifiers and oscillators at the microwave frequency range. Content: Reflex Klystron Need Operating Principle Construction Working Specifications Applications Need of Reflex Klystron …

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Klystron – Two-cavity Klystron Amplifier

Definition: Klystrons are a special type of vacuum tubes that find applications as amplifiers and oscillators at microwave frequencies. Its principle of operation is velocity modulation. Thus the device used for amplifying microwave signals is known as Two-cavity Klystron. In the year 1937, American engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian developed klystrons. Basically, the operating principle …

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8284 Clock Generator

8284 clock generator is an IC developed by Intel to provide clock frequency, ready and reset signal to the 8086/8088 microprocessor. It is an 18 pin chip. 8284 produces the clock signal, synchronizes it with the ready and reset signal and provides it to the microprocessor. Functions of 8284 It provides a stable clock to …

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Assembler Directives

Definition: Assembler directives are the instructions used by the assembler at the time of assembling a source program. More specifically, we can say, assembler directives are the commands or instructions that control the operation of the assembler. Assembler directives are the instructions provided to the assembler, not the processor as the processor has nothing to …

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Assembly Language Programming

Assembly language programming is a low-level programming language in which the instructions are written in the form of mnemonics. More simply, we can say the language in the form of mnemonics is known as assembly language. This programming language allows the creation of human-readable program equivalent to machine code. Now a question arises: What are …

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